The project will examine two nation-building processes in South-eastern Europe from a macro and micro perspective: 1) a macro-perspective on the strategies for construction of exclusive ethno-national identities by means of public symbols. The focus will be on the ethno-national identity “politics” from 1945 to present day: the exploitation of ethno-national symbols as discursive and ideological elements in the social construction of ethno-national identities. In particular, the research will attempt to identify the role of the: 1. National academies in inventing tradition; 2. State symbols in the expression of official identity politics; 3. Poetry as a mechanism of “imagining” the nation as a community; 4. National cinematography in creating representations of nation. 2) a gender-sensitive micro-perspective will be focused on the effects of ethnonational identity politics on the daily realities of people living in divided communities: 1. The symbolic influence of "Ohrid Framework Agreement" and "Dayton Agreement"; 2. The representation of public state symbols in the private places as well as in the private memories and experiences related to "national belonging" (name of the state, flags, national anthem, national emblem); 3. The role of ethno-national monuments and religious symbols.