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Institutional Chronology of Nation Building: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia on 15 October 1991. Since 1944 it had been one of the six constituent republics of socialist Yugoslavia. The war of 1992–1995 was ended by the Dayton Peace Accord, which established two entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina: The “Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina” (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine, also known as the Bosniak-Croatian Federation) and the “Republika Srpska”. The Federation consists of ten cantons with significant powers, and the district of the northern Bosnian town Brčko is administered by both entities. The nation state is responsible for foreign and defense, monetary and foreign trade policies, while other issues belong to the competency of either the two entities or the cantons. The de facto most powerful authority in the country is the Office of the High Representative, i.e. the representative of the International Community. The International Community has also a military presence in Bosnia-Hercegovina, implementing and observing the Dayton Peace Accord. Until 2004, these troops were under UN-command (IFOR, SFOR), and since then under EU command (EUFOR).